GHG Emissions


  • Amount of GHG emissions expected to be emitted, or measured, annually. This variable is expressed in tons of CO2eq/y. Project-level emissions information provided by client can be used to calculate derivative indicators (e.g., GHG emissions savings/ reduction/ avoidance) according to the most relevant methodology. For more detailed information on the derivatives indicators and scopes 1-3, see guidance here.
  • Also known as absolute emissions; gross emissions.

✔ Tonnes of CO2e/y


To disaggregate types of greenhouse gas emissions, organizations are encouraged to report greenhouse gas emissions scopes, which allows for disaggregation by GHG Protocol Scopes 1-3.

When reported ex-ante, this metric is intended to estimate the expected amount of scope 1 and scope 2 greenhouse gases to be emitted annually when the project is completed and operating at the designed capacity.

When reported ex-post, this metric intends to express the actual amount of scope 1 and scope 2 GHG emitted during the reporting year.

The GHG accounting of a project is based on established methodologies for ex-ante GHG accounting including the greenhouse gas emission calculation approaches as per, inter alia, the GHG Protocol, the tools and methodologies of the IFI GHG Accounting Group, the Clean Development Mechanism methodology, Verified Carbon Standard, Gold Standard and the EU Emissions Trading Scheme, ISO 14064 (Part 1 and 2), or other international standards. For tools that may be helpful in calculating this and related metrics see GHG Protocol Calculators, CEET, IPCC emission factors.

The start and end of the reporting periods may differ, but they should cover one year. Generally estimated ex-ante for a representative year when a project is expected to be completed and operational at full capacity. This metric is calculated for a typical year of operation, not over the lifetime of the project.

NOTES (if applicable):

Carbon Pricing: Projects with gross GHG emissions (scope 1 + 2) over a certain threshold (e.g., 20,000 tCO2eq/y EIB; 25,000 tCO2eq/y IFC) gross GHG emissions are used to calculate the impact of social cost of carbon in the Economic Rate of Return (ERR). For more details see the EIB GHG Methodologies; MDB GHG Methodology

Related Tools and Links


Real sector projects where a GHG claim is relevant; financial intermediaries and funds may use this metric when they collect GHG data from their clients. Various tools are available from different DFIs (e.g., CAFI -, etc.).

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GHG Emissions Sequestration


  • Amount of CO2 sequestered during the reported period.
  • May be known as "CO2 Reduced", "Avoided /Sequestered.", "Carbon Removals (in line with PCAF standard)"., "Greenhouse Gas Emissions Sequestered".


✔ Tonnes of CO2/y (per year)


This metric is intended to capture the total amount of CO2 sequestered during the reporting period. This metric can be used in with greenhouse gas emissions mitigation types to disaggregate the types of greenhouse gas emissions sequestered as relevant to the organization's activities. This metric refers to greenhouse gas emissions sequestered during the reporting period, not the lifetime of trees or forestland, for example.

Calculating greenhouse gas emissions sequestration is a technical process that requires standardized and precise methodological guidance. Organizations should refer to at least one of the following standards when calculating this metric: Verified Carbon Standard, Gold Standard, American Carbon Registry, AFOLU Carbon Calculator, Climate Action Reserve Standard, and Plan Vivo Standard. For tools that may be helpful in calculating this and related metrics, see GHG Protocol Calculators.

May be reported once before project begins, then annually. May also be measured Ex-post. Should be reported separately from absolute emissions.


Related Tools and Links

Real sector projects where relevant; financial intermediaries and funds may use this metric when they collect data from their clients. For FIs, various tools are available from different DFIs (e.g., CAFI -, etc.)

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Water Consumption

Amount of water consumed during the reporting period, measured in cubic meters. This may include water that has been sourced from surface or groundwater resources and is either evaporated, incorporated into a product or taken from one body of water and returned to another, or returned at a different time. Water consumption could be reported annually or daily and can be used to measure reduction in water losses, water consumption of economic activities, and/or as an input to calculate water resource efficiency compared against different industry standards (e.g. per unit of output).

Unit: m3(water)

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Wastewater Treatment

Amount of wastewater treated to appropriate standards during the reporting period, measured in cubic meters. May also include the amount of untreated wastewater discharges avoided.

Unit: m3(wastewater)

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Energy Consumption

Energy consumption measured in kilowatt-hours or megajoules of energy consumed during the reporting period. Distinguishing heat and electricity consumption is recommended. This indicator may be used to measure performance (e.g. kWh/m2 for a green building) or could be an absolute measure (e.g. before and after comparison).

Unit: kWh or MJ(energy)

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Land Use

Hectares of land used during the reporting period. May be used to assess land use efficiency (e.g. MW/ha for reservoirs, i.e. megawatts of power produced per hectare of land used for water storage).

Unit: # ha(land)

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Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

Hectares of land covered by sustainable land management practices, verified as being sustainable managed according to internationally recognized standards. Sustainable management of living natural resources includes both biodiversity and environmental services. Proxys of certification through an independent audit and verification process may be used to determine sustainable use. Distinct methodologies may need to be used for forestry, farmland, etc.

Unit: # ha(land meeting standards and/or certified)

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